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By Daniel A Foxvog

Advent to Sumerian Grammar

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In other cases forms are as yet not attested or probably never existed at all. ), while elements which the general pattern of the language seems to preclude entirely are indicated by a dash (—). INDEPENDENT PRONOUNS (§90-99) The following are the standard citation forms: ┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ I, me │ │ Sg 1 ĝá-e (older ĝe26) │ 2 za-e (older zé) you │ │ 3p e-ne (older a-ne) he, him, she, her │ │ │ │ Pl 1 me-en-dè-en (it is) we, us │ │ 2 me-en-zé-en (it is) you │ │ 3p e-ne-ne (older a-ne-ne) they (personal), them │ │ │ └────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ (or ĝe26-e) (OB also èn) Like nouns, independent pronouns can appear as heads of nominal chains and take case postpositions to indicate their relationship to the rest of the sentence.

In where? towards where? from where? to until? = = = = = = = = who is it? why? why? how? where? whither? whence? how long? " A related expression is built on the nominal compound ní-te (var. g. g. na-me, it has also been described as an indefinite pronoun. Like other adjectives, it may be transliterated either linked with a hyphen to a preceding head noun or left as a self-standing word. g. ki-na-me-šè "to some/no other place" (TCS 1, 77:5 Ur III). RELATIVE PRONOUNS The following nouns or interrogative pronouns can function as virtual relative pronouns in contexts discussed in the lesson on relative clauses and the nominalizing particle -a: lú nì ki a-ba a-na REMEMBER: the person (who) the thing (which) the place (where) (the one) who (that) which A NEEDED ERGATIVE OR LOCATIVE-TERMINATIVE POSTPOSITION -e MAY BE HIDDEN IN A PRECEDING POSSESSIVE PRONOUN!

Za-e (older zé) e-ne (older a-ne) ĝá-(a)-ra/ar* za-(a)-ra/ar* e-ne-ra/er ĝá-(a)-da za-(a)-da e-ne-da 1 2 3p me-en-dè-en me-en-zé-en e-ne-ne (older a-ne-ne) — — e-ne-ne-ra/er — — e-ne-ne-da *An -e- or assimilated -a- vowel may occur between the pronouns and case markers in 1st and 2nd sg. forms. -Term. ) -zu-ne-ne-ra/er -(a)-ne-ne-ra/er -me-šè -zu-ne-ne-šè -(a)-ne-ne-šè Genitive (ak) Locative (a) Dimensional (da/ta/šè) 1 2 3p 3i -ĝá -za -(a)-na -ba -ĝá -za -(a)-na -ba -ĝu10-da -zu-da -(a)-ni-da -bi-da 1 2 3p -me -zu-ne-ne -(a)-ne-ne -me-a -zu-ne-ne-a -(a)-ne-ne-a -me-da -zu-ne-ne-da -(a)-ne-ne-da Plural ((e)ne) -ĝu10-ne -zu-ne -(a)-né-ne -bé-ne ?

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Introduction to Sumerian Grammar by Daniel A Foxvog

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