By Daniel A Foxvog
Advent to Sumerian Grammar
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Advent to Sumerian Grammar
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Extra info for Introduction to Sumerian Grammar
In other cases forms are as yet not attested or probably never existed at all. ), while elements which the general pattern of the language seems to preclude entirely are indicated by a dash (—). INDEPENDENT PRONOUNS (§90-99) The following are the standard citation forms: ┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ I, me │ │ Sg 1 ĝá-e (older ĝe26) │ 2 za-e (older zé) you │ │ 3p e-ne (older a-ne) he, him, she, her │ │ │ │ Pl 1 me-en-dè-en (it is) we, us │ │ 2 me-en-zé-en (it is) you │ │ 3p e-ne-ne (older a-ne-ne) they (personal), them │ │ │ └────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ (or ĝe26-e) (OB also èn) Like nouns, independent pronouns can appear as heads of nominal chains and take case postpositions to indicate their relationship to the rest of the sentence.
In where? towards where? from where? to until? = = = = = = = = who is it? why? why? how? where? whither? whence? how long? " A related expression is built on the nominal compound ní-te (var. g. g.
Za-e (older zé) e-ne (older a-ne) ĝá-(a)-ra/ar* za-(a)-ra/ar* e-ne-ra/er ĝá-(a)-da za-(a)-da e-ne-da 1 2 3p me-en-dè-en me-en-zé-en e-ne-ne (older a-ne-ne) — — e-ne-ne-ra/er — — e-ne-ne-da *An -e- or assimilated -a- vowel may occur between the pronouns and case markers in 1st and 2nd sg. forms. -Term. ) -zu-ne-ne-ra/er -(a)-ne-ne-ra/er -me-šè -zu-ne-ne-šè -(a)-ne-ne-šè Genitive (ak) Locative (a) Dimensional (da/ta/šè) 1 2 3p 3i -ĝá -za -(a)-na -ba -ĝá -za -(a)-na -ba -ĝu10-da -zu-da -(a)-ni-da -bi-da 1 2 3p -me -zu-ne-ne -(a)-ne-ne -me-a -zu-ne-ne-a -(a)-ne-ne-a -me-da -zu-ne-ne-da -(a)-ne-ne-da Plural ((e)ne) -ĝu10-ne -zu-ne -(a)-né-ne -bé-ne ?
Introduction to Sumerian Grammar by Daniel A Foxvog