By A. Wright, C. Christopoulos
Electrical strength process Protection offers training engineers with the main updated and accomplished one -volume reference and instructional on energy method safeguard to be had. targeting basic equipment and expertise and with wide examples drawn from present perform across the world, this booklet can be a big reference device for engineers concerned with and stricken by strength process protection.
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Extra info for Electrical Power System Protection
MJ. (e s) needed to drive the secondary current (is) through the total secondary-circuit impedance. e. mJ. and excitation current may also vary greatly and in this respect the behaviour is very different from that of voltage transformers. f. (e s )' Allowance may be made for this non-linearity, if necessary, when determining the behaviour of a particular transformer under specified conditions, calculation then being done using step by step or other methods. If great accuracy is not required, however, simplifications can be effected by assigning constant values, the averages over a cycle, to Re and L m .
Printed in reference , pp 1-19. Further Reading 37 4. Gibson, J. W. (1941) The high-rupturing-capacity cartridge fuse, with special reference to short-circuit performance. J. lEE, 88, (1), 2-24. 5. Leach, 1. , Newbery, P. G. and Wright, A. (1973) Analysis of high-rupturingcapacity fuselink prearcing phenomena by a finite-difference method, Proc. lEE, 120, (9), 987-993. 6. Wilkins, R. and McEwan, P. M. C. short-circuit performance of uniform section fuse elements, Proc. lEE, 123, (3), 85-293.
In practice, the current error does vary with secondary current level and burden impedance, but nevertheless, secondary winding turns may be adjusted to take advantage of the full range of current errors allowable in the various classes of accuracy quoted in standard specifications. As an example, Class 1 accuracy in BS 3938 permits current errors up to ± 1% and the use of extra secondary winding turns enables the permissible negative error band to be used. This adjustment of secondary winding turns from the nominal value is known as turns compensation and it can be done with considerable precision on transformers with a large number of secondary turns.
Electrical Power System Protection by A. Wright, C. Christopoulos