By Kenneth P. Burnham
Entire theoretical, functional, and analytical remedy of huge box experiments within which the recapture of marked animals is used to estimate mortality because of river dams or different stressors. Statistical layout and software program aid are emphasised.
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Substantial experience had already enabled the Irish monks to reach the Faeroes by means of the curach. Similarly, later on, the Scandinavian knarr would enable the North Atlantic to be navigated. The discovery of Iceland by the Irish marks the end of a progressive expansion in the Atlantic, preceded by the discoveries of Orkney, Shetland and the Faeroes. The earliest dated voyage on which Iceland was discovered is 795, but we may put the finding of the island of glaciers and volcanoes back to an earlier date.
Nor, in this same sector, could oars compensate for the absence of a favourable wind: oar propulsion is slow, not to mention the difficulty of rowing against contrary wind, or the existence of the extremely strong north—south currents along the length of the coast. Providing for the oarsmen would also be extremely difficult, given that watering places are rare. Finally, returning northbound into the wind would require the ship to stay close to the shore, tacking in order to hug the wind as closely as possible.
Around 300 BC he had endless adventures. Departing from Massilia (Marseilles), Pytheas cleared the Straits of Gibraltar and headed north, rounded Brittany and reached the ‘Island of Thule’ (Iceland, or rather the western coast of Norway). In contrast to the numerous explorers of antiquity, who were motivated only by commercial or military concerns, Pytheas did important geographical work. He determined the latitude of Massilia, carefully observed the phenomenon of tides, recording differences in amplitude which he related to the phases of the moon.
Design and Analysis Methods for Fish Survival Experiments Based on Release-Recapture by Kenneth P. Burnham