Download e-book for kindle: De la démocratie en Amérique by Alexis de Tocqueville

By Alexis de Tocqueville

ISBN-10: 2081220873

ISBN-13: 9782081220874

" J'avoue que dans l'Amérique j'ai vu plus que l'Amérique ; j'y ai cherché une photo de l. a. démocratie elle-même, de ses penchants, de son caractère, de ses préjugés, de ses passions ". los angeles gloire de Tocqueville n'est pas seulement celle d'un analyste politique exceptionnel ; c'est aussi, depuis l. a. récente redécouverte de son oeuvre, celle d'un philosophe politique qui serait en même temps un classique de los angeles sociologie, et qui pourrait aider à comprendre les problèmes qui se posent constamment dans les démocraties modernes. L'égalité des stipulations, l'individualisme, le despotisme démocratique, les kinfolk entre maîtres et serviteurs, l'esprit de liberté et l'esprit de faith, autant de notions qui dessinent aujourd'hui encore les contours d'une philosophie de l. a. démocratie.

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Example text

In that case, the indeterminacy lies in determining the net effect of the mechanisms rather than in determining which of them (if any) will be triggered. ’’ The first proverb asserts a causal link between poverty and a strong desire for innovation, the second a link between poverty and few opportunities for innovation. Because behavior is shaped by desires as well as by opportunities (Chapter 9), we cannot in general tell whether the net impact of poverty on innovation is positive or negative. 9 In general we cannot tell whether the net effect of an early bad experience on later welfare will be positive or negative.

M. Rosenthal, Thirty-Eight Witnesses (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999). A convenient access to Festinger’s views is in L. Festinger, S. Schachter, and M. ), Extending Psychological Frontiers: Selected Works of Leon Festinger (New York: Russell Sage, 1989). The examples of ‘‘child-to-parent’’ effects are from two stimulating books by J. R. Harris, The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do (New York: Free Press, 1998) and No Two Alike (New York: Norton, 2006). I discuss Tocqueville’s views on causality in ‘‘Patterns of causal analysis in Tocqueville’s Democracy in America,’’ Rationality and Society 3 (1991), 277–97, and his views on the French Revolution in ‘‘Tocqueville on 1789,’’ in C.

10 Or consider the somewhat similar case of a person who faces a barrier or impediment to her goal. This threat to her freedom of action may induce what psychologists call ‘‘reactance’’ – a motivation to recover or reestablish the freedom. 12 Even when we know the net effect, we may not be able to explain it. Suppose we were somehow able to observe and measure a zero net effect of the endowment and contrast effects with regard to a good experience in the past. This outcome might come about in two ways.

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De la démocratie en Amérique by Alexis de Tocqueville

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