By Jennifer Erickson
The United Nations's groundbreaking palms alternate Treaty (ATT), which went into impression in 2014, units legally binding criteria to control worldwide fingers exports and displays the starting to be matters towards the numerous position that small and significant traditional fingers play in perpetuating human rights violations, clash, and societal instability around the world. many nations that when staunchly adversarial shared export controls and their perceived possibility to political and monetary autonomy are actually commencing to embody a variety of agreements, comparable to the ATT and the european Code of behavior.
Jennifer L. Erickson explores the explanations best arms-exporting democracies have set aside previous sovereignty, safety, and financial concerns in prefer of humanitarian fingers move controls, and he or she follows the early results of this about-face on export perform. She starts with a short historical past of failed fingers export regulate projects after which tracks hands move tendencies through the years. Pinpointing the normative shifts within the Nineties that placed humanitarian palms keep an eye on at the desk, she unearths that those states devoted to those regulations out of shock for his or her foreign reputations. She additionally highlights how fingers alternate scandals threaten household reputations and hence support enhance compliance. utilizing statistical information and interviews performed in France, Germany, Belgium, the uk, and the us, Erickson demanding situations present IR theories of nation habit whereas supplying perception into the function of attractiveness as a social mechanism and the significance of presidency transparency and responsibility in producing compliance with new norms and rules.
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Extra resources for Dangerous trade : arms exports, human rights, and international reputation
The interviews address governments’ reasoning behind their policy and practice as well as advocates’ strategies for influencing government decision making. In addition, I examine public opinion, the positions of key advocacy groups, and the timing of advocacy-group support or opposition to determine the role of domestic pressures. In conjunction with the statistical trends, the qualitative analysis can therefore help parse between the explanations and ultimately provide substantive support for the reputational argument.
For “naming and shaming” and rhetorical entrapment strategies to work, however, there must not only be information about discrepancies between policy and practice but also actors willing to advertise and condemn those discrepancies (Chong 1992:190). In the post–Cold War era, arms control NGOs—to the surprise of many, including perhaps the NGOs themselves—have emerged prominently in this role. Domestic NGOs, Transparency, and Accountability Changes in international expectations regarding conventional arms export policy have been facilitated—but not necessarily led—by NGOs.
In short, states worry about their reputation because they believe it affects their ability to make credible—and therefore effective—threats. Past behavior serves as information to make more accurate predictions about other states’ behavior in a military crisis, revealing their “type” to be strong or weak (HughJones and Zultan 2012; Walter 2009). 4 Daryl Press’s (2005) critique goes further, arguing that states do 22 “ R e s po n si b l e ” A r m s Tr a n sfe r P o li c y a nd Soci a l Re p uta ti on not actually take their adversaries’ past behavior into account when making decisions during a military crisis.
Dangerous trade : arms exports, human rights, and international reputation by Jennifer Erickson