By D. R. Stoddart and R. E. Johannes
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Extra info for Coral Reefs: Research Methods
On reef islands this is aided by the fact that many vegetation units consist of single-species stands. Geological detail should be similarly categorized in advance, as for example in the geological maps of Kapingamarangi islands by McKee (1956). , so that even where topographic changes are rapid, maps made in subsequent years may be related to the original one. DETERMINATION OF HEIGHTS Accurate determination of elevations for the purpose of inter-island or interreef comparison depends in the first instance on the establishment of a reference datum, and this can pose major problems especially in macrotidal areas.
On the Great Barrier Reef these are prominent only in areas of higher tidal range (in excess of 4 m). Reef islands are easily distinguished. Brilliant white sand or shingle beaches merge into slightly darker reef flat sands with spits or drift areas sharply defined. Beach rock has a much darker appearance, with supplementary keying from its position closely parallel to the beach and a linear pattern. Vegetated areas have variable appearance. Low herbaceous vegetation, or areas of dune creepers, have light tones with fine texture and some linear pattern representing the beach ridge structure of the cay.
B. 1959. Sedimentary belts in lagoon of Kapingamarangi Atoll. Bull. Am. Assoc. petrol. Geol.. vol. 43, p. 501-62. MCLEAN, R. F. 1972. Nomenclature for rock-destroying organisms. ), vol. 240, p. 490. MERGNER, H. 1971. Structure, ecology and zonation of Red Sea reefs (in comparison with south Indian and Jamaican reefs). Symp. zool. Sot. , vol. 28, p. 141-61. MOLENGRAAFF, G. A. F. 1930. The coral reefs in the East Indian archipelago, their distribution and mode of development. In: Proc. 2th Pacific Sci.
Coral Reefs: Research Methods by D. R. Stoddart and R. E. Johannes