By David Rosenthal
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Extra info for Consciousness and Mind
James Strachey, London: The Hogarth Press, 1966–74 [henceforth ‘‘Works’’), XXIII, pp. 279–286, at p. 283. And he understood that to do so one must deﬁne the mental in terms of phenomenal and intentional character; thus he insisted that ‘‘all the categories which we employ to describe conscious mental acts . . can be applied’’ equally well to unconscious mental states (‘‘The Unconscious,’’ Works, XIV, pp. 166–215, at p. 168). Moreover, he maintained that ‘‘[t]he psychical, whatever its nature may be, is itself unconscious’’ (‘‘Some Elementary Lessons,’’ p.
Or he may not even believe of himself that he is George. Unlike token-reﬂexive constructions, these terms involve anaphora. But the clauses that contain them are grammatical transforms of sentences that do contain genuine token reﬂexives. † I no longer accept my earlier suggestion that we can construe higher-order thoughts as having the explicit content that whatever individual has this very thought is also in the target mental state. As Thomas Natsoulas has pointed out, if all higher-order thoughts were about themselves in that way, that might make one conscious of them all, and if it did they would all be conscious.
But if so, such states would be derivatively mental, owing their mental status solely to their connection with conscious states. And perhaps it makes sense to postulate nonconscious versions of ordinary mental states, as some psychological theories do. But if consciousness is central to mentality in the way this picture insists, any such states are at best degenerate examples of mentality, and thus peripheral to our concept of mind. This picture is both inviting and familiar. But there are other features of the way we normally think about mind which result in a rather different conception of the relation between consciousness and mentality.
Consciousness and Mind by David Rosenthal