By A. Bruce Carlson
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Extra resources for Communication Systems An Introduction to Signals and Noise in Electrical Communication Bruce Carlson (Solutions_Manual)
The unit 2 . This mV per Pascal, or its equivalent the mV per Newton/m replaces the mV per jubar and the mV per dyne/cm , used formerly. Sometimes the output is expressed in minus dB. This has reference to 1 V, so -60 dB = 1 mV. It should be qualified by the suffix V, thus dBV or the description (0 dB = 1 V) but these are often omitted. Off-load signal voltage varies according to the impedance of the circuit, so is not an informative measure of sensitivity unless the impedance is known. Comparisons can thus only be made between models of the same impedance.
Pads are sometimes inserted behind the ribbon to restrict rear response. With some models it is reduced to just a small rear lobe, which makes the overall effect similar to the hypercardioid. Gun/interference tube An open-ended tube having a series of holes or slots along one side is mounted in front of a cardioid microphone. Front propagated sound waves enter the end of the tube and also the holes; all reach the diaphragm at (c) (a) (b) Figure 37. Polar diagrams of various microphone directional responses: (a) omni-directional; (b) cardioid; (c) hypercardioid; (d) figure eight/velocity; (c) gun/interference tube.
Movement of the diaphragm varies the capacitance and so a charging current flows in and out of the device. This produces a voltage drop over a load resistor, which must be very high in value if a useful signal voltage is to be developed from the small current flowing. Output impedance is therefore ultra high, around 100 ΜΩ. A connecting cable of more than a few inches would cause severe loss of high frequencies owing to cable capacitance, so a built-in pre-amp is essential. The very low mass and inertia of the diaphragm gives a flat and extended response, while output is high because of the 42 built-in pre-amp.
Communication Systems An Introduction to Signals and Noise in Electrical Communication Bruce Carlson (Solutions_Manual) by A. Bruce Carlson