Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Control: A Global - download pdf or read online

By Roger Webber

ISBN-10: 0851999026

ISBN-13: 9780851999029

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2004 5:40am Control Principles and Methods 4. Toxoids are detoxified bacterial exotoxins and are an important way of producing antibodies to bacterial toxins. They do not prevent the infection, but counteract the dangerous effects of the toxin. Like killed organisms, several doses have to be given to induce a sufficient antibody response and booster doses repeated from time to time to maintain the level. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoid are two vaccines in this category. 2 Vaccine schedules The type of vaccine and the age of risk of developing the target disease determine the optimum time and schedule for administering each vaccine.

BCG should not be given to pregnant women or those with symptomatic HIV infection. However, even in countries where there is a high level of HIV and tuberculosis, BCG should be given to all infants at birth, as it is unlikely that they would have developed symptoms of HIV infection by this time. Hepatitis B leads to chronic liver disease, especially cirrhosis, which is a predisposing cause of primary liver cell cancer. The prevalence of hepatitis B is as high as 8% in many parts of the world, but if the vaccine is administered before infection, the disease and carrier state are prevented.

2004 12:34pm page 20 20 Chapter 1 evidence from Ethiopia and Kenya has shown that this level is already rising. Malaria is now found at higher altitudes with the rate of ascent linked to the rise in temperature. There is also a greater risk of epidemic malaria with the wider fluctuations of temperature that have resulted and the number of people who have no immunity. Other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes like dengue and Japanese encephalitis, and other arboviruses, such as Rift Valley fever, are likely to increase.

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Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Control: A Global Perspective, 2nd Edition by Roger Webber

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