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4 For Motzki, by contrast, this close correlation between textual variant and isnād suggests two key facts: (1) the isnād may, at least in part, reflect the actual transmission history of the matn to which it is attached; and (2) matn variations may, at least in part, be a product of that transmission history. Careful analysis of both the isnād and matn of all the extant versions of related hadith often allows one to reconstruct earlier versions of the hadith. Even a hadith’s origins can be determined, and who and how it was adapted during transmission until recorded in extant sources.
Even a hadith’s origins can be determined, and who and how it was adapted during transmission until recorded in extant sources. Although the method often allows the original disseminator or fabricator of the tradition to be identified, Motzki asserts, it can only be used on traditions for which there exist sufficiently large number of closely related, interconnected hadith in the various sources of the Sunna and Prophetic biographical (sīra) or exegetical (tafsīr) literatures—they must be, in a sense, mutawātir.
Norman Calder also emphasized the use of private notebooks by students, whose contents in the process of copying and transmission were changeable. But to Calder this did not imply authenticity; the materials therein were not transmitted as books, but as segments, and not verbatim, but acquired, selected, and preserved based on the needs of the “author” (1993: 162–3). A creative contribution to the authenticity debate came from Fazlur Rahman, who accepted the skepticism of Goldziher and Schacht, proffering only a few critiques, but claimed (1979) that it was irrelevant for the normativity of the Sunna.
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