By Gerard T. Koeppel
You both like it or hate it, yet not anything says ny just like the highway grid of new york. Created in 1811 by means of a three-man fee that includes headstrong Founding Father Gouverneur Morris, the plan referred to as for a dozen parallel avenues crossing at correct angles with many dozens of parallel streets in an unbroken grid. Hills and valleys, streams and ponds, forests and swamps have been invisible to the grid; so too have been nation villages, roads, farms, and estates and generations of estate strains. All could disappear because the crosshatch textile of the grid overspread the island: a heavy greatcoat at the land, the dense undergarment of the long run city.
No different grid in Western civilization was once so huge and uniform because the one ordained in 1811. now not with out cause. whilst the grid plan used to be introduced, long island was once just below 200 years outdated, an overgrown city on the southern tip of big apple, a infamous jumble of streets laid on the whim of landowners. To deliver order past the chaos—and stable actual property to market—the highway making plans fee got here up with a monolithic grid for the remainder of the island. Mannahatta—the local "island of hills"—became a spot of rectangles, in hundreds of thousands of blocks at the flattened panorama, and lots of extra hundreds of thousands of right-angled structures emerging in vertical mimicry.
The long island grid has been referred to as "a disaster" of city making plans and "the such a lot brave act of prediction in Western civilization." besides the fact that one feels approximately it, the main well-known city layout of a residing urban defines its way of life. this is often its story.
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Extra resources for City on a Grid: How New York Became New York
Since the duty to obey the jurists is derived from the duty to obey the Prophet, then the duty to obey the rulers is derived from the duty to obey the jurists [who are the experts on the religious sciences]. e. 33 Regulations or adjudications by rulers might have binding force in their immediate and present context, but they were not integrated in the formal doctrines of Islamic jurisprudence. Only the responsa (fatāwā) issued by jurists and systematic writings by law professors were considered to be legitimate articulations of the Divine Law.
The loss of my sense of self-responsibility – the fact that I have completely abdicated any sense of responsibility for my own welfare – leads one to reasonably suspect that I am under the spell of coercive authority. If, in fact, I do feel that my will and judgment have become irrelevant, that I ought to submit myself completely, and that I should abandon any sense of self-responsibility to the person who is an authority, this sounds more like domination and not authoritativeness. 56 Persuasive authority influences people to believe, act or refrain from acting in a certain fashion by persuading them that this is what ought to be.
127–141; Coulson, A History of Islamic Law, pp. 151–152; Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East, pp. 81–82; For an example of civil law approaches to Islamic law, see, Chehata, Études de Droit Musulman and Théorie Générale de L’Obligation en Droit Musulman Hanéfite; ‘al-Sanhūrī, Maṣādir al-Ḥaqq fī al-Fiqh al-Islāmī; ‘Awdah, al-Tashrī‘ al-Jinā’ī al-Islāmī Muqārinan. 13 For a pronounced example of this see, Comair-Obeid, “Particularity of the Contract’s Subject-Matter in the Laws of the Arab Middle East,” Arab Law Quarterly 11, no.
City on a Grid: How New York Became New York by Gerard T. Koeppel