By Stringfield N., White R., McKee S.
Cisco convey Forwarding figuring out and troubleshooting CEF in Cisco routers and switches Nakia Stringfield, CCIER No. 13451Russ White, CCIE No. 2635Stacia McKee How does a router swap a packet? what's the distinction among routing a packet, switching a body, and packet switching? what's the CiscoR show Forwarding (CEF) function observed in Cisco documentation and regularly present in Cisco IOSR instructions? CEF is a common time period that describes the mechanism through which Cisco routers and CatalystR switches packet-switch (route) frames. CEF is located in just about all Cisco routers and Catalyst switches, and figuring out how CEF operates can enhance the functionality, scalability, and potency of your community. Cisco convey Forwarding demystifies the interior workings of Cisco routers and switches, making it more straightforward so that you can optimize functionality and troubleshoot concerns that come up in Cisco community environments. This publication addresses universal misconceptions approximately CEF and packet switching throughout quite a few structures, supporting you to enhance your troubleshooting abilities for CEF- and non-CEF-related difficulties. the 1st a part of the ebook presents an outline of packet-switching architectures and CEF operation and complex features.It additionally covers the improved CEF constitution and normal troubleshooting. the second one a part of the ebook presents case experiences that target the typical themes which were frustrating for purchasers and people helping Cisco networks. filled with useful examples and configurations, this publication attracts on years of expertise that will help you preserve your Cisco networks operating successfully. Nakia Stringfield, CCIER No. 13451, is a community consulting engineer for complicated prone at Cisco, assisting best monetary shoppers with community layout and making use of most sensible practices. She was once previously a senior customer service engineer for the Routing Protocols Technical counsel heart (TAC) staff troubleshooting concerns relating to CEF and routing protocols. Nakia has been with Cisco for greater than six years, formerly serving as a technical chief for the structure TAC workforce. Russ White, CCIE No. 2635, is a precept Engineer within the Routing Protocol layout and structure staff at Cisco. he's a member of the IETF Routing sector Directorate, co-chair of the Routing Protocols protection operating workforce within the IETF, a typical speaker at Cisco Networkers, a member of the CCIE content material Advisory workforce, and the coauthor of six different books approximately routing and routing protocols, together with optimum Routing layout from Cisco Press. Russ basically works within the improvement of latest beneficial properties and layout architectures for routing protocols. Stacia McKee is a customer service engineer and technical chief of the Routing Protocols Technical tips middle (TAC) workforce. This group makes a speciality of offering post-sales help of IP routing protocols, MPLS, QoS, IP multicast, and lots of different Layer three applied sciences. Stacia has been with Cisco for greater than six years, formerly serving as a technical chief of the structure TAC group and a member of the WAN/Access TAC group. study the foremost good points of packet-switching architecturesUnderstand the fundamentals of the CEF structure and operationExamine the improved CEF constitution, which improves scalabilityLearn how one can troubleshoot in software-switching environmentsUnderstand the impact of CEF on a Cisco Catalyst 6500 manager 720Configure and troubleshoot load sharing with CEFEvaluate the impact of CEF in an MPLS VPN environmentReview CEF layout issues that influence scalability
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255, is reserved for the use of routing and discovery protocols. 10 to maintain neighbor relationships. This FIB entry allows the router to receive and process packets destined to this IP address range. 255/32 receive— This entry allows the router to receive packets transmitted to the link local broadcast address. Interface-Specific FIB Entries The three types of interfaces of primary concern when looking at a normal FIB table are as follows: • Multiaccess interfaces (including broadcast, such as Ethernet) • Point-to-point interfaces (including most WAN interfaces, such as Packet over SONET [PoS], Frame Relay, and High-Level Data Link Control [HDLC] links) • Links that are configured to use 31-bit subnet masks The next sections describe each of these FIB entries.
FIB structures are often built differently because the performance of a given mtrie structure can vary depending on the way in which the prefixes are distributed in the routing table. Figure 2-2 illustrates this point. Figure 2-2. FIB Performance Figure 2-2 shows the percentage of line rate on a high-speed interface that two formations of tries are capable of switching. This illustration clearly shows that some mtrie structures can perform better than others for different average lengths of prefixes.
8/32, on Router B. 8. Figure 2-10. Glean Adjacency [View full size image] Drop Adjacency The FIB points to a drop adjacency when packets switched to this destination should be dropped upon being received. Drop adjacencies obey any configured Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) requirements. 0/4 on a router that does not have IP Multicast Routing enabled. Example 2-16. 0 valid drop adjacency Discard Adjacency Discard adjacencies are used for addresses that are part of a loopback interface's subnet, but are not actually configured on the loopback interface.
Cisco Express Forwarding by Stringfield N., White R., McKee S.