By A. P. Kazhdan
Byzantium, that darkish sphere at the outer edge of medieval Europe, is often considered as the immutable residue of Rome's decline. during this hugely unique and provocative paintings, Alexander Kazhdan and Ann Wharton Epstein revise this conventional photo by means of documenting the dynamic social alterations that happened in the course of the 11th and 12th centuries.
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Extra info for Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
OnJy a few local famines are noted. For instance, Nicholas Mouzalon records a famine on Cyprus in the first half of the twelfth century. In this case the land produced fruit, but there were no laborers available to harvest it.
Early ecclesiastical entries that had moved between the e terior and the interior of the church were incorporated within the structure. The scale of sanctuaries changed equally dramatically. The voluminous monument of the sixth century had no counterparts of equal ize in later centurie . o cond mn the seventh and eighth centuries as a Dark Age of decline and collapse would be misleadingly simplistic. Ba ic internal changes occurred under the tumultuous surface of history, proces es so broad that they largely escaped the attention of contemporaries and still remain unclear to modern scholars.
Thus, not surprisingly, it was during the struggle over the veneration of icons that the emotions of the people reached a crescendo. In contrast, the act of Communion, on which the Iconoclastic idea of salvation concentrated, was highly individualistic. By taking the consecrated elements, the celebrants partook individually of the Lord's flesh and blood. They were each isolated from the throng; they each personally merged with the Divinity. Individualization of worship and, accordingly, of salvation, is only one side of Iconoclasm.
Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries by A. P. Kazhdan