By Barbara Palmer
Why has the combination of ladies into Congress been so gradual? Is there a "political glass ceiling" for ladies? even supposing girls use an analogous strategic calculations as males to determine while to run, the choice concerning the place to run is anything else. whereas redistricting has more and more safe incumbents, it additionally has the unintentional end result of shaping the possibilities for girl applicants. The political geography and socio-economic profile of districts that pick girls fluctuate considerably from districts that choose males. With information on over 10,000 elections and 30,000 applicants from 1916 to the current, Palmer and Simon discover how procedure and the facility of incumbency impact women’s judgements to run for place of work. Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling is the main accomplished research of girls in congressional elections on hand. the second one variation is absolutely up-to-date to mirror the pivotal 2006 mid-term elections, together with Nancy Pelosi’s upward thrust to Speaker of the home, Hillary Clinton’s bid for the presidency, and a checklist variety of ladies serving as committee chairs. also, the authors have created an internet site, came upon at politicsandwomen.com, to focus on key positive factors of the publication and supply updates during the election cycle.
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Additional resources for Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling: Women and Congressional Elections - Second edition
Quoted from Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 53. 41 Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 53. 42 Bob Woodward, The Agenda: Inside the Clinton White House (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994), 300. 43 Woodward, 1994, 300–2. 44 Foerstel, 1999, 172. See also Marjorie Margolies-Mezvinsky, A Woman’s Place: The Freshmen Women Who Changed the Face of Congress (New York: Crown, 1994). 45 Witt, Paget, and Matthews, 1995, 298. 46 Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 50–51. 47 Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 52. ”49 Although the number of women running in primary elections took a dive in 1998, the next several election cycles saw relatively steady growth in the number of women candidates.
4 percent. 1 illustrates that not only do House incumbents enjoy a high rate of reelection, but over time they have also increasingly won by larger margins. 0 percent of incumbents were reelected with more than 55 percent of the two-party vote. 3 percent of incumbents were reelected with more than 55 percent of the two-party vote. In other words, incumbents have grown more secure electorally; almost all of them come from safe seats. 1 also reveals that House elections are uncompetitive, particularly primaries.
45 Witt, Paget, and Matthews, 1995, 298. 46 Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 50–51. 47 Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 52. ”49 Although the number of women running in primary elections took a dive in 1998, the next several election cycles saw relatively steady growth in the number of women candidates. In 2004, a record number of women, 137, won their primaries, and all ﬁfty-seven of the female incumbents who ran for reelection won. In 2006, 207 women ran in primaries, 136 women were nominated, and a record seventy-one women won in the general election.
Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling: Women and Congressional Elections - Second edition by Barbara Palmer