By Abul K. Abbas MBBS, Andrew H. H. Lichtman MD PhD, Shiv Pillai MBBS PhD
Understand all of the crucial thoughts in immunology with Basic Immunology: services and problems of the Immune System! This concise, targeted textual content offers you an up-to-date, available advent to the workings of the human immune procedure.
- Efficiently grasp the immunology info you would like through clinically centred content material, logically equipped via mechanism.
- Apply what you've gotten realized to real-world events by referencing the appendix of medical circumstances.
- Enhance your learning with assistance from various full-color illustrations and worthy tables, in addition to precis containers, evaluate questions, and a thesaurus of immunology terms.
- Study immunology anywhere! on-line entry to www.StudentConsult.com opens the door to an more desirable publication and ancillary components!
- Visualize advanced immunology options with a very up-to-date artwork program.
- Test your knowledge. New PowerPoint evaluate slides extra to www.StudentConsult.com are perfect for learn sessions.
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Extra resources for Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 4e
Adaptive immunity is mediated by lymphocytes stimulated by microbial antigens, requires clonal expansion and differentiation of the lymphocytes before it is effective, and responds more effectively against each successive exposure to a microbe. ✹ Lymphocytes are the cells of adaptive immunity and are the only cells with clonally distributed receptors with fine specificities for different antigens. ✹ Adaptive immunity consists of humoral immunity, in which antibodies neutralize and eradicate extracellular microbes and toxins, and cell-mediated immunity, in which T lymphocytes eradicate intracellular microbes.
Helper T cells secrete cytokines and express surface molecules that mediate their functions. Some of these activated helper T cells function to recruit neutrophils and other leukocytes to sites of infection; other helper cells activate macrophages to kill ingested microbes; and still other helper T cells stay in the lymphoid organs and help B lymphocytes. CTLs directly kill cells harboring microbes in the cytoplasm. These microbes may be viruses that infect many cell types or bacteria that are ingested by macrophages but have learned to escape from phagocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm (where they are inaccessible to the killing machinery of phagocytes, which is largely confined to vesicles).
Because microbial antigens are concentrated in the same regions of these organs through which naive T cells circulate. Thus, T cells find the antigen they can recognize, and these T cells are activated to proliferate and differentiate. Naive cells that have not encountered specific antigens leave the lymph nodes and reenter the circulation. The effector cells that are generated upon T cell activation preferentially migrate into the tissues infected by microbes, where the T lymphocytes perform their function of eradicating the infection.
Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 4e by Abul K. Abbas MBBS, Andrew H. H. Lichtman MD PhD, Shiv Pillai MBBS PhD