By John Ernsting; P F King
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They lead to tachycardia and vasoconstriction. The different types of receptors are distributed unevenly within the left ventricle, which may explain the ﬁnding that bradycardia and hypotension are more common following posterior and inferior left ventricular wall myocardial ischaemia and tachycardia and hypertension are more common with anterior wall ischaemia. With care taken to prevent changes in coronary artery pressure, it seems that the responses (bradycardia and systemic vasodilation) to left ventricular mechanoreceptor stimulation are small and apparent only at high left ventricular distension pressures associated with large increases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
Phase 3: at the end of the forced expiration, the sudden fall in intrathoracic pressure is transmitted to the aorta, causing aortic pressure to fall and a further reﬂex speeding up of heart rate. Phase 4: the fall in intrathoracic pressure causes a sudden large increase in venous return, as the blood that has been accumulating in the abdomen, head and arms can now enter the thorax. This increases cardiac output and blood pressure and results in an arterial baroreceptor reﬂex bradycardia. maximum is reached.
ENDOTHELIAL FACTORS The endothelial cells lining the blood vessels produce both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor substances. Nitric oxide (NO) is produced continuously by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in normal subjects. In health, this basal NO production leads to a tonic reduction in total peripheral resistance. NO production increases when vessels are exposed to increased shear stress, causing the ﬂow-mediated vasodilation of arteries that often follows metabolite-mediated dilation of more peripheral vessels.
Aviation medicine by John Ernsting; P F King