By Trevor Mellard
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Knocking of the engine. There are many factors which may lead to knocking combustion; different fuel qualities; advanced ignition timing; aging and environ mental effect. A knocking combustion process leads to an extremely sharp rise in cylinder press ure and produces pressure oscillation. Depending on its intensity the piston and crank components may be overloaded, or the engine may overheat and lead to serious mechanical damage. The use of knock sensors enables an engine to run on the threshold of 'knock' and should knock occur the sensor feeds the information back to an electronic control unit which retards the ignition timing to / 1 Ceramic reduce the knock detected.
Pressure vibration frequencies other than the typical knock frequency are also contained in the structure-borne vibration signal. The charac teristic knocking signal must be electronically extracted from other signals, then analysed by an evaluation circuit, the result of which is supplied A common application is thefloat-typelevel trans mitter using a thick film resistive track and wiper. 23(a) shows a typical sensor. 23(b) shows circuits for low fuel warning, incorporated within the sensor itself.
5(b)) diode D 2 conducts. 5(c). i -OfDl( - i i Vehicle DC? ' bctftery T(a) B! 3 Alternator starter winding connections Stator winding -C* LA 3| A C * Rectification Conversion from AC to DC is known as rec tification and is done with semiconductor diodes. 4 shows how a single diode allows the posi tive half cycle of an alternating current wave to pass through but blocks the negative half cycle, ►! - * DJ(ON) ' I T 1 " Vehide D C U - battery (b) 'Max Average DC value 63% of maximum ■^- Rectifying diode r 1 !
Automotive Electronic Systems by Trevor Mellard