By Jean-Louis Flandrin
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Additional info for Arranging the meal : a history of table service in France
Moreover, except for these last 2 roasts, none of the dishes whose name indicates the mode of preparation is itself a roast. ”2 Moreover, half of them are entrées that were misplaced in the chapter on roasts. The names of the other 74 recipes in the Cuisinier françois chapter on roasts do not specify how these meats were cooked. 3 The 61 remaining recipes call for meats roasted on a spit, with or without lard, but served plain or possibly with a sauce on the side. At the same time, the meat entrées and entremets whose name did not specify a mode of preparation were never roasted meats.
The single meal of fasting days was now allowed at the “none” or ninth hour of the day, which is 32 about three in the afternoon. This was soon supplemented by a morsel at bedtime and liquid food in the morning, which were not viewed as breaking the fast. Lent contrasted with the remainder of the year, called charnage, itself divided into meat and meatless days. The Lenten abstinence from meat did not prohibit Western Christians from eating ﬁsh, unlike the Greeks and other Eastern believers for whom this was forbidden during part of their extensive fast.
Entremets were even more varied. They, too, could consist of organ meats, large cuts of meat, fowl, or feathered or furred game; many were egg or vegetable dishes, cold meats, aspics, creamed dishes, pasties, pies or tarts, all sorts of other savories, fritters, or fried specialties. This chapter aims to establish criteria by which to distinguish entrées from entremets, and to ascertain what had to be served during the ﬁrst course before the roast, and what was to be eaten afterward as part of the ﬁnal course from the kitchen.
Arranging the meal : a history of table service in France by Jean-Louis Flandrin