By John Gooch
This name within the sequence on nineteenth and twentieth century army, naval and air historical past offers clean interpretations of current fabric and covers strategic, diplomatic, monetary and monetary concerns. After the Unification of Italy, the Italian military confronted the initiatives of creating and protecting the kingdom. more and more preoccupied with household affliction at domestic it additionally struggled to create defences opposed to opposed ecu powers. even as it fought significant colonial wars, and in a single of them, suffered a catastrophic and ignominious defeat. eventually in 1915 it entered a struggle for which it used to be ill-prepared and in process which it nearly broke. Focusing really at the topic of professionalism, this publication examines the issues confronted by way of the military in the course of those years, and is helping to provide an explanation for its later receptivity to Fascism. John Gooch has been editor of the "Journal of Strategic experiences" due to the fact that its beginning and is Chairman of the military files Society.
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He was made inspector of military education in 1864, and nominated senator six years later. Described by the British ambassador as 'a scientific rather than a practical soldier', he had served on most of the important military commissions and was very experienced. 44 A Policy for Defence 31 One of Mezzacapo's first acts in office was to compile an inventory of his inheritance. As an indictment of his Piedmontese predecessors it made dismal reading. There were 240000 infantry but only 210000 Vetterli rifles.
Then aged 61, Mezzacapo was the first southerner to hold the office, and the first non-Piedmontese since Fanti in 1861. Educated in the Bourbon army, he had fought for the Venetian Republic in 1848-49 and then gone into exile on Malta, moving to Turin in 1853. He had played an important part in the Tuscan campaign in 1859, and became a lieutenant-general the following year. He was made inspector of military education in 1864, and nominated senator six years later. Described by the British ambassador as 'a scientific rather than a practical soldier', he had served on most of the important military commissions and was very experienced.
Decrees of 15 July and 26 August 1877 announced that promotions to lieutenant-colonel would also be effected by selection and not seniority, and the following January a special examlllation was instituted for promotion from captain to major. 49 Uppermost in Mezzacapo's mind was the fear of a possible European war. Mounting tension between Russia and Turkey, which led to war in April 1877, and fears that Austria-Hungary might profit from the unstable situation by seizing Bosnia and Herzegovina from Turkey, led A Policy for Defence 33 to increasingly vociferous distrust of Austria and to mounting irredentism.
Army, State and Society in Italy, 1870–1915 by John Gooch