By Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin
As pathogenic micro organism evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our skill to regulate and deal with infectious ailments. Antibiotic Resistance completely illuminates this significant factor for healthcare pros, researchers, scholars, and policymakers. best investigators clarify what resistance is, the way it emerges, which human actions give a contribution, and the way to reinforce our defenses.
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Extra resources for Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis
Eventually, resistance to the new β-lactams became widespread, and S. aureus acquired resistance to most other compounds. That led to the resurrection of vancomycin. For some infections caused by MRSA, vancomycin is now the only major agent available. Daptomycin is another old compound initially obtained from Streptomyces. Early clinical trials revealed side effects at multiple, high doses, and the compound was shelved. (In the 1980s many other compounds were still available for S. ) Daptomycin was brought back to the market when strains of S.
Resistant subpopulations, which are discussed in Chapter 10, “Restricting Antibiotic Use and Optimizing Dosing,” create a fundamental problem for conventional therapy strategies. Bacterial populations also contain a small number of cells (1 in 100,000) that are not readily killed by antibiotic treatment even though they have normal antibiotic susceptibility. These cells are called persisters. Persisters are not resistant, because these survivors of antibiotic treatment have the same antibiotic susceptibility as the starting population when retested.
MIC measures the capability of a drug to block growth. A different assay measures killing. For this, the pathogen is grown as a pure culture in a test tube or flask, and the antibiotic is added. For kinetic measurements, samples are removed from the culture at specific times, diluted, and applied to agar plates that lack drug. com Chapter 2 Working with Pathogens 21 colonies is determined and compared with the number obtained from the culture immediately before antibiotic treatment. 99%. To measure drug concentration effects, a series of tubes is set up in which antibiotic concentration is varied with incubation time being kept constant.
Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis by Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin