By Heather J. Sharkey
In 1854, American Presbyterian missionaries arrived in Egypt as a part of a bigger Anglo-American Protestant flow aiming for around the globe evangelization. safe through British imperial energy, and later by means of mounting American worldwide impact, their company flourished in the course of the subsequent century. American Evangelicals in Egypt follows the continued and sometimes unforeseen ameliorations initiated by way of missionary actions among the mid-nineteenth century and 1967--when the Six-Day Arab-Israeli battle uprooted the american citizens in Egypt.
Heather Sharkey makes use of Arabic and English assets to make clear the numerous aspects of missionary encounters with Egyptians. those happened via associations, reminiscent of colleges and hospitals, and during literacy courses and rural improvement tasks that expected later efforts of NGOs. To Egyptian Muslims and Coptic Christians, missionaries awarded new versions for civic participation and for women's roles in collective worship and neighborhood existence. while, missionary efforts to transform Muslims and reform Copts prompted new varieties of Egyptian social activism and brought on nationalists to enact legislation proscribing missionary actions. confronted by way of Islamic strictures and customs relating to apostasy and conversion, and through expectancies in regards to the right constitution of Christian-Muslim family members, missionaries in Egypt trigger debates approximately non secular liberty that reverberate even this present day. eventually, the missionary event in Egypt ended in reconsiderations of undertaking coverage and evangelism in ways in which had long term repercussions for the tradition of yank Protestantism.
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Additional resources for American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire
29 Lansing issued scathing denunciations of this forced labor and argued that it benefited only Egypt’s ruling classes, foreign tourists, and businessmen. “And thus it is,” he wrote, “that railroads, factories, fortifications, and palaces, almost without number, are being raised throughout the land. Their towering walls are laid upon the very heart of poor, crushed Egypt. ”30 These points suggest that although the American missionary presence may have accompanied and benefited from Western imperial expansion, missionaries themselves were sometimes bitter critics of ruling regimes and Western powers.
Schools of the latter type represented Franco-Catholic cultural outposts in Egypt and pursued educational missions that were only incidentally related to the mission of making Copts into Uniates. In short, the very complexity and diversity of the Roman Catholic presence in Egypt has made its history harder to grasp. But if one theme stands out, it is that the Roman An Egyptian Evangelical Community · 33 Catholics in Egypt had no particular interest in appealing to Muslims and concentrated their missions on Christians—on Copts and other Eastern Christian minorities (both Uniates and “schismatics”), as well as on Latin-rite Catholics.
Chapter 2 considers the history of the American mission in Egypt from its founding in 1854 until the British Occupation of 1882. It discusses the nature and roots of the mission’s evangelical impulse, and the impact that the mission had on the Christian culture of the Copts. Chapter 3 focuses on the years from 1882 to 1918, when American missionaries pursued more aggressive efforts to evangelize among Muslims, and when women assumed numerical preponderance within the mission, thereby enabling the American Presbyterians to expand their activities among Egyptian females.
American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire by Heather J. Sharkey