By Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin, Frederick A. Murphy
Released due to the fact 1953, Advances in Virus examine covers a various diversity of in-depth stories supplying a necessary evaluation of the present box of virology. The influence issue for 2006 is 3.48 putting it seventh within the hugely aggressive classification of virology. * Contributions from best experts * Informs and updates on all of the most modern advancements within the box
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1977). In that study, 38% of sera collected from non-human primates within the rainforest were positive for DENV antibodies, which was similar to levels observed (43%) for humans living in communities within the forest. , 1977). However, the availability of limited epidemiological information and the paucity of serosurvey data prevent an accurate assessment of the overall human exposure to sylvatic DENV-2 in Nigeria, Senegal and other parts of West Africa. 44 Nikos Vasilakis and Scott C. Weaver Even though sylvatic transmission cycles occupy ecologically distinct environments, the studies of Smith and Rudnick in Southeast Asia and the small number of documented human infections from Senegal and Nigeria suggest that sylvatic DENV comes into regular contact with humans, but with little or no secondary transmission within the human population (spillover epidemics).
Strains are abbreviated as follows: country abbreviation/strain/year. , than the assumption of emergence of endemic DENV-1 from a sylvatic ancestor implies that, like DENV-3, the DENV-1 sylvatic cycle has not yet been sampled. History and Evolution of Human Dengue Emergence 31 The hyperendemic DENV cycles seen today probably required further urbanization of the twentieth century combined with the distribution of the highly efficient vector, Ae. aegypti, throughout the tropics. Assuming that DENV evolves at a constant rate, an assumption that may not be completely valid (see rates of evolution section below), it was estimated that the endemic DENV-2 genotypes diverged from the sylvatic genotypes no more than 1000 Æ 500 years ago, DENV-4 no more than 600 Æ 300 years ago, and DENV-1 no more than 200 Æ 100 years ago (Fig.
Aegypti and Ae. , 2007b), suggests that the transfer between forest and human habitats could occur regularly. B. The influence of natural immunity or vaccination on potential sylvatic DENV emergence As described in previous sections (see DENV evolutionary relationships—origin and emergence) the four DENV serotypes have evolved from a common ancestral progenitor resulting in viruses sharing several common antigenic sites. , virus neutralization) against DENV infection, albeit epidemiologically well-founded, lacks an inherent understanding of human antibody responses during primary or heterotypic DENV infections.
Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 72 by Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin, Frederick A. Murphy