By Bernice Glatzer-Rosenthal, Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak
The religious revival that's sweeping the Soviet Union at the present time had its genesis within the spiritual renaissance of the early twentieth century. In either situations, it used to be lay intellectuals, upset with simplistic positivism and materialism, who tailored Russian orthodoxy to fashionable existence. Their principles reverberated, not just in faith and philosophy, yet in paintings, literature, portray, theater and movie. Banned via the Soviet govt in 1922, the writings of the spiritual renaissance have been rediscovered within the Brezhnev period by way of a brand new iteration of Soviet intellectuals upset with Marxism. Circulating from hand at hand in unlawful typewritten versions (samizdat), they exerted an evergrowing effect on Soviet society, from the very most sensible all the way down to traditional humans. less than the hot coverage of glasnost, the govt. itself is presently reprinting their works. the decisions incorporated during this quantity mirror the profundity and breadth in their idea and are provided in English for the 1st time. the popularity of the common desire and importance of religious values and beliefs united this differently heterogeneous workforce and bears witness to the range in their method of the fundamental problems with the human situation. The centrality of those lay intellectuals' matters transcends the specifics of the old state of affairs in early twentieth century Russia and makes their writings appropriate to the common human situation. so as of visual appeal, the decisions are: VLADIMIR SOLOVYOV, The Enemy from the East, The Russian nationwide perfect; NIKOLAI GROT, at the actual initiatives of Philosophy; SERGEI DIAGHILEV, complicated Questions; VASILLY V. ROZANOV, On Sweetest Jesus and the sour end result of the realm; NIKOLAI BERDIAEV, Socialism as faith; SERGEI BULGAKOV, An pressing activity; VIACHISLAV IVANOV, hindrance of Individualism, GEORGII CHULKOV, On Mystical Anarchism; DMITRI S. MEREZHKOVSKY, Revolution and faith, The Jewish query As a Russian query; GEORGII FLOROVSKY, on the planet of Quests and Wanderings; PAVEL NOVGORODTSEV, The Essence of the Russian Orthodox recognition; PETR STRUVE, The Intelligentsia and the nationwide Face; ANDREI BELY, Revolution and tradition; ALEKSANDR BLOK, Catiline; EVGENY TRUBETSKOI, The Bolshevist Utopia and the non secular circulate.
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6 Neither philosophy, which became his profession, nor religion, with which he again became reconciled, provided Solovyov with a fully credible justification of life. Although the intelligentsia presumed that only those who shared their materialistic presuppositions could have the public good as their goal, and that scholarly activity was tantamount to desertion of the common people, that, of course, was not the case. Solovyov, for all his mystical and metaphysical terminology, was interested not so much in description as in a blueprint for change.
Opposing Pisarev's dictum that boots are more important than Shakespeare, disillusioned with populist solutions to Russia's problems, and rebelling against the injunction that art must serve the people, a few artists and thinkers began, first independently and then in small groups of like-minded individuals, to search for new values and ideals. Chafing under the limitations on art and thought imposed by the intelligentsia, they set goals at once more diffuse and far-reaching, for they bypassed the political and economic spheres of human existence to focus on man's psychological, emotional, and spiritual needs, including a need for faith.
Solovyov could become a prophet because the climate of opinion in the Church, among certain philosophers, and among the socially and politically committed, was changing. Reformers within the Church, pseudo-Slavophiles who were critical of its chauvinist bent, and philosophers who began chafing under the limitations of theoretical positivism, welcomed and encouraged Solovyov. Contrary to Berdiaev's widely known statement that philosophy was moribund in Russia, and to Solovyov's own complaints about his lonely status, interest in philosophy and in the issues raised by Solovyov was growing in Russia at the end of the nineteenth century.
A Revolution of the Spirit: Crisis of Value in Russia, 1890-1924 by Bernice Glatzer-Rosenthal, Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak